College of Forestry

Global Trophic Cascades Program


Displaying 1 - 100 of 166 Publications


Newsome TA, Cairncross R, Cunningham CX, Spencer E, Barton PS, Ripple WJ, Wirsing AJ. 2024.  Scavenging with invasive species. Biological Reviews. 99:562–581. DOI | PDF


Beschta RL, Painter LE, Ripple WJ. 2023. Revisiting trophic cascades and aspen recovery in northern Yellowstone. Food Webs. 36(e00276) DOI | PDF
Painter LE, Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2023. Aspen recovery in northern Yellowstone: A comment on Brice et al. (2021). Ecology Letters. DOI | PDF
Painter LE, Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2023. Bison alter the northern Yellowstone ecosystem by breaking aspen saplings. Ecology and Evolution. 13(8):e10369. DOI


Dellinger JA, Shores CR, Craig A, Kachel SM, Heithaus MR, Ripple WJ, Wirsing AJ. 2022. Predators reduce niche overlap between sympatric prey. Oikos. DOI | PDF
Ingeman KE, Zhao LZ, Wolf C, Williams DR, Ritger AL, Ripple WJ, Kopecky KL, Dillon EM, DiFiore BP, Curtis JS et al.. 2022. Glimmers of hope in large carnivore recoveries. Scientific Reports. 12:10005. DOI | PDF
Lundgren EJ, Ramp D, Middleton OS, Wooster EF, Kusch E, Balisi M, Ripple WJ, Hasselerharm CD, Sanchez JN, Mills M et al.. 2022. A novel trophic cascade between cougars and feral donkeys shapes desert wetlands. Journal of Animal Ecology. DOI | PDF
Millward LS, Wilson TM, Weldy MJ, Rowland MM, Duarte A, Lesmeister DB, Ripple WJ. 2022. Small mammal relative abundance within riparian ecosystems of the Blue Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management. 505 DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Beschta RL, Painter LE. 2022. The history of cougars in Yellowstone National Park. Western North American Naturalist. 82(4):752–759. PDF


Bradshaw CA, Ehrlich PR, Beattie A, Ceballos G, Crist E, Diamond J, Dirzo R, Ehrlich AH, Harte J, Harte M.E. et al.. 2021. Underestimating the Challenges of Avoiding a Ghastly Future. Front. Conserv. Sci. DOI | PDF
Carver S, Convery I, Hawkins S, Beyers R, Eagle A, Kun Z, Van Maanen E, Cao Y, Fisher M, et al.. 2021. Guiding principles for rewilding. Conservation Biology. DOI | PDF
Hayek MN, Harwatt H, Ripple WJ, Mueller ND. 2021. The carbon opportunity cost of animal-sourced food production on land. Nature Sustainability. 4:21-24. DOI | PDF
Newsome TM, Barton BT, Buck JC, DeBruyn J, Spencer E, Ripple WJ, Barton PS. 2021. Monitoring the dead as an ecosystem indicator. Ecology and Evolution. 11(11):5844-5856. DOI | PDF
Wolf C, Levi T, Ripple WJ, Zárrate-Charry DA, Betts MG. 2021. A forest loss report card for the world’s protected areas. Nat Ecol Evol. DOI | PDF | Supplementary Information


Albert JS, Destouni G, Duke-Sylvester SM, Magurran AE, Oberdorff T, Reis RE, Winemiller KO, Ripple WJ. 2020. Scientists’ warning to humanity on the freshwater biodiversity crisis. Ambio. DOI | PDF
Beschta RL, Ripple WJ, Kauffman JB, Painter LE. 2020. Bison limit ecosystem recovery in northern Yellowstone. Food Webs. 23(e00142) DOI | PDF
Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2020. Large carnivore extirpation linked to loss of overstory aspen in Yellowstone. Food Webs. :e00140. DOI | PDF
Brown C, Rinaldi CE, Ripple WJ, Van Valkenburgh B. 2020. Skeletal and Dental Development Preserve Evidence of Energetic Stress in the Moose of Isle Royale. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. DOI | PDF
Buotte PC, Law BE, Ripple WJ, Berner LT. 2020. Carbon sequestration and biodiversity co-benefits of preserving forests in the western United States. Ecological Applications. 30(2):e02039. DOI | PDF
Greenville AC, Newsome TM, Wardle GM, Dickman CR, Ripple WJ, Murray BR. 2020. Simultaneously operating threats cannot predict extinction risk. Conservation Letters. e12758 DOI | PDF
Heleno RH, Ripple WJ, Traveset A. 2020. Scientists’ warning on endangered food webs. Web Ecology. 20:1-10. DOI | PDF
Janeiro-Otero A, Newsome TM, van Eeden LM, Ripple WJ, Dormann CF. 2020. Grey wolf (Canis lupus) predation on livestock in relation to prey availability. Biological Conservation. 243(108433) DOI | PDF
Kemppinen KS, Collins PM, Hole DG, Wolf C, Ripple WJ, Gerber LR. 2020. Global reforestation and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology. 34(5):1221-1228. DOI | PDF
Levi T, Hilderbrand GV, Hocking MD, Quinn TP, White KS, Adams MS, Armstrong JB, Crupi AP, Darimont CT, Deacy W. et al.. 2020. Community Ecology and Conservation of Bear-Salmon Ecosystems. Front. Ecol. Evol. DOI | PDF
Oksanen T, Oksanen L, Vuorinen KM, Wolf C, Mäkynen A, Olofsson J, Ripple WJ, Virtanen R, Utsi TA. 2020. The impact of thermal seasonality on terrestrial endotherm food web dynamics: a revision of the Exploitation Ecosystem Hypothesis. Ecography. 43(12):1859-1877. DOI | PDF
Painter LE, Tercek MT. 2020. Tall willow thickets return to northern Yellowstone. Ecosphere. 11(5):e03115. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Barnard P, Moomaw WR. 2020. World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency. BioScience. 70(1):8–12. DOI | PDF


Beschta, RL, Painter, LE, Ripple, WJ. 2019. Trophic cascades and Yellowstone’s aspen: A reply to Fleming (2019). Forest Ecology and Management 454: 117344 DOI | PDF
Barton BT, Hill JG, Wolff CL, Newsome TM, Ripple WJ, Lashley MA. 2019. Grasshopper consumption by grey wolves and implications for ecosystems. Ecology. :e02892. DOI | PDF
Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2019. Can large carnivores change streams via a trophic cascade? Ecohydrology. 12(1):e2048. DOI | PDF
Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2019. Yellowstone’s Prehistoric Bison: A Comment on Keigley (2019). Rangelands. 41(3):149-151. DOI | PDF
Betts MG, Wolf C, Pfeifer M, Banks-Leite C, Arroyo-Rodríguez V, Ribeiro DB, Barlow J, Eigenbrod F, Faria D, Fletcher R.J. et al.. 2019. Extinction filters mediate the global effects of habitat fragmentation on animals. Science. 366:1236–1239. PDF
Dellinger JA, Shores CR, Craig A, Heithaus MR, Ripple WJ, Wirsing AJ. 2019. Habitat use of sympatric prey suggests divergent anti‑predator responses to recolonizing gray wolves. Oecologia. DOI | PDF
Harwatt H, Ripple WJ, Chaudhary A, Betts MG, Hayek MN. 2019. Scientists call for renewed Paris pledges to transform agriculture. The Lancet Planetary Health. DOI | PDF
Malcom J, Schwartz MW, Evansen M, Ripple WJ, Polasky S, Gerber LR, Lovejoy TE, Talbot LM, Miller JB. 2019. Solve the biodiversity crisis with funding. Science. 365(6459):1256. PDF
Ripple WJ, Miller SD, Schoen JW, Rabinowitch SP. 2019. Large carnivores under assault in Alaska. PLoS Biol. 17(1):e3000090. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Betts MG, Ceballos G, Courchamp F, Hayward MW, Van Valkenburgh B, Wallach AD, Worm B. 2019. Are we eating the world's megafauna to extinction? Conservation Letters. :e12627. DOI | PDF
Wolf C, Ripple WJ, Betts MG, Levi T, Peres CA. 2019. Eating plants and planting forests for the climate. Global Change Biology. 25(12):3995-3995. DOI | PDF


Batavia C, Nelson MP, Darimont CT, Paquet PC, Ripple WJ, Wallach AD. 2018. The elephant (head) in the room: A critical look at trophy hunting. Conservation Letters. :e12565. DOI | PDF
Beschta RL, Painter LE, Ripple WJ. 2018. Trophic cascades at multiple spatial scales shape recovery of young aspen in Yellowstone. Forest Ecology and Management. 413:62-69. DOI | PDF
Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2018. Wolf-triggered trophic cascades and stream channel dynamics in Olympic National Park: a comment on East et al.. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms. DOI | PDF
Courchamp F, Jaric I, Albert C, Meinard Y, Ripple WJ, Chapron G. 2018. The paradoxical extinction of the most charismatic animals. PLoS Biol. 16(4):e2003997. DOI | PDF
Dellinger JA, Shores CR, Marsh M, Heithaus MR, Ripple WJ, Wirsing AJ. 2018. Impacts of recolonizing gray wolves (Canis lupus) on survival and mortality in two sympatric ungulates. Can. J. Zool.. 96:760–768. DOI | PDF
Gray TE, Hughes AC, Laurance WF, Long B, Lynam AJ, O'Kelly H, Ripple WJ, Seng T, Scotson L, Wilkinson NM. 2018. The wildlife snaring crisis: an insidious and pervasive threat to biodiversity in Southeast Asia. Biodivers Conserv. 27:1031–1037. DOI | PDF
Lundgren EJ, Ramp D, Ripple WJ, Wallach AD. 2018. Introduced megafauna are rewilding the Anthropocene. Ecography. 41(6):857-866. DOI | PDF
Painter LE, Beschta RL, Larsen EJ, Ripple WJ. 2018. Aspen recruitment in the Yellowstone region linked to reduced herbivory after large carnivore restoration. Ecosphere. 9(8):e02376. DOI | PDF
Peters R, et al. 2018. Nature Divided, Scientists United: US–Mexico Border Wall Threatens Biodiversity and Binational Conservation. Bioscience. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Meijaard E, Newsome TM. 2018. Saving the World with Satire: A Response to Chapron et al.. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 33(7):483-484. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Galetti M, Newsome TM, Green TL, Alamgir M, Crist E, Mahmoud MI, Laurance WF. 2018. The Role of Scientists’ Warning in Shifting Policy from Growth to Conservation Economy. Bioscience. 68(4):239-240. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Hoffmann M, Wirsing AJ, McCauley DJ. 2018. Both the largest and smallest vertebrates have elevated extinction risk. PNAS. 115(26):E5847-E5848. DOI | PDF
Shackelford N, Standish RJ, Ripple WJ, Starzomski BM. 2018. Threats to biodiversity from cumulative human impacts in one of North America's last wildlife frontiers. Conservation Biology. 32(3):672-684. DOI | PDF
van Eeden LM, Crowther MS, Dickman CR, Macdonald DW, Ripple WJ, Ritchie EG, Newsome TM. 2018. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock. Conservation Biology. 32(1):26-34. DOI | PDF
van Eeden LM, Eklund A, Miller JB, Lopez-Bao JV, Chapron G, Cejtin MR, Crowther MS, Dickman CR, Frank J, Krofel M et al.. 2018. Carnivore conservation needs evidence based livestock protection. PLoS Biol. 16(9):e2005577. DOI | PDF
Wallach AD, Lundgren EJ, Ripple WJ, Ramp D. 2018. Invisible megafauna. Conservation Biology. DOI | PDF
Wolf C, Betts MG, Levi T, Newsome TM, Ripple WJ. 2018. Large species within carnivora are large carnivores. Royal Society Open Science. 5:181228. DOI | PDF


Betts MG, Wolf C, Ripple WJ, Phalan B, Millers KA, Duarte A, Butchart SM, Levi T. 2017. Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes. Nature. 547:441–444. DOI | PDF
Buck JC, Ripple WJ. 2017. Infectious Agents Trigger Trophic Cascades. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. DOI | PDF
Gray TE, Lynam AJ, Seng T, Laurance WF, Long B, Scotson L, Ripple WJ. 2017. Wildlife-snaring crisis in Asian forests. Science. 355(6322):255-256. DOI | PDF
Harwatt H, Sabate J, Eshel G, Soret S, Ripple WJ. 2017. Substituting beans for beef as a contribution toward US climate change targets. Climatic Change. DOI | PDF | News Story: Replacing beef with beans could save the planet because people fart…
Hayward MW, Ripple WJ, Kerley GH, Landman M, Plotz RD, Garnett ST. 2017. Neocolonial Conservation: Is Moving Rhinos to Australia Conservation or Intellectual Property Loss. Conservation Letters. DOI | PDF
Johns D, Terborgh J, Estes JA, Foreman D, Miller BJ, Noss R, Soule ME, Ripple WJ. 2017. We Need a Biologically Sound North American Conservation Plan. Bioscience. DOI | PDF
Letnic M, Ripple WJ. 2017. Large-scale responses of herbivore prey to canid predators and primary productivity. Global Ecol Biogeogr. DOI | PDF
Lindsey PA, Chapron G, Petracca LS, Burnham D, Hayward MW, Henschel P, Hinks AE, Garnett ST, Macdonald DW, Macdonald E.A. et al.. 2017. Relative efforts of countries to conserve world’s megafauna. Global Ecology and Conservation. 10:243–252. DOI | PDF
Newsome TM, Fleming PS, Dickman CR, Doherty TS, Ripple WJ, Ritchie EG, Wirsing AJ. 2017. A New Dog. BioScience. 67(4):374-381. DOI | PDF
Newsome TM, Greenville AC, Cirovic D, Dickman CR, Johnson CN, Krofel M, Letnic M, Ripple WJ, Ritchie EG, Stoyanov S et al.. 2017. Top predators constrain mesopredator distributions. Nature Communications. 8(15469) DOI | PDF | News Story: Wolves need space to roam to control expanding coyote populations
Ripple WJ, Chapron G, Lopez-Bao JV, Durant SM, Macdonald DW, Lindsey PA, Bennett EL, Beschta RL. 2017. Conserving the World's Megafauna and Biodiversity: The Fierce Urgency of Now. Bioscience. 67(3):197-200. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Galetti M, Alamgir M, Crist E, Mahmoud MI, Laurance WF. 2017. World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice. Bioscience. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Hoffmann M, Wirsing AJ, McCauley DJ. 2017. Extinction risk is most acute for the world’s largest and smallest vertebrates. PNAS. 114(40):10678–10683. PDF
Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Hoffmann M, Wirsing AJ, McCauley DJ. 2017. Smallest terrestrial vertebrates are highly imperiled. PNAS. DOI | PDF
Swain M, Blomqvist L, McNamara J, Ripple WJ. 2017. Reducing the environmental impact of global diets. Science of the Total Environment. 610-611:1207–1209. DOI | PDF


Beschta RL, Painter LE, Levi T, Ripple WJ. 2016. Long-term aspen dynamics, trophic cascades, and climate in northern Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 46:548-556. DOI | PDF
Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2016. Riparian vegetation recovery in Yellowstone: The first two decades after wolf reintroduction. Biological Conservation. 198:93-103. DOI | PDF
Everatt KT, Andresen L, Ripple WJ, Kerley GH. 2016. Rhino poaching may cause atypical trophic cascades. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment. 14:65-67. DOI | PDF
Gordon CE, Eldridge DJ, Ripple WJ, Crowther MS, Moore BD, Letnic M. 2016. Shrub encroachment is linked to extirpation of an apex predator. Journal of Animal Ecology. 86(1):147-157. DOI | PDF
Holm SR, Noon B.R, Wiens J.D, Ripple W.J. 2016. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion. The Wildlife Society Bulletin. 40(4):615-624. DOI | PDF
Newsome TM, Boitani L, Chapron G, Ciucci P, Dickman CR, Dellinger JA, Lopez-Bao JV, Peterson RO, Shores CR, Wirsing A.J. et al.. 2016. Food habits of the world's grey wolves. Mammal Review. 46:255-269. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Abernethy K, Betts MG, Chapron G, Dirzo R, Galetti M, Levi T, Lindsey PA, Macdonald DW, Machovina B. et al.. 2016. Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals. The Royal Society Open Science. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Chapron G, Lopez-Bao JV, Durant SM, Macdonald DW, Lindsey PA, Bennett EL, Beschta RL, Bruskotter JT, Campos-Arceiz A. et al.. 2016. Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna. BioScience. 66(10):807-812. DOI | PDF | Supplemental Material
Ripple WJ, Estes JA, Schmitz OJ, Constant V, Kaylor MJ, Lenz A, Motley JL, Self KE, Taylor DS, Wolf andC. 2016. What is a Trophic Cascade? Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 31(11):824-849. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Newsome TM, Kerley GH. 2016. Does Trophy Hunting Support Biodiversity? A Response to Di Minin et al. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 31(7):495-496. DOI | PDF
Sarasola JH, Zanón-Martínez JI, Costán AS, Ripple WJ. 2016. Hypercarnivorous apex predator could provide ecosystem services by dispersing seeds. Scientific Reports. 6 DOI | PDF
Virgos E, Lozano J, Cabezas-Dı´az S, Macdonald DW, Zalewski A, Atienza JC, Proulx G, Ripple WJ, Rosalino LM, Santos-Reis M. et al.. 2016. A poor international standard for trap selectivity threatens carnivore conservation. Biodivers Conserv. DOI | PDF
Wolf C, Ripple WJ. 2016. Prey depletion as a threat to the world's large carnivores. Royal Society Open Science. DOI | PDF


Batchelor JL, Ripple WJ, Wilson TM, Painter LE. 2015. Restoration of Riparian Areas Following the Removal of Cattle in the Northwestern Great Basin. Environmental Management. 55(4):930–942. DOI | PDF
Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2015. Divergent patterns of riparian cottonwood recovery after the return of wolves in Yellowstone, USA. Ecohydrology. 8:58-66. PDF
Eisenberg C, Hibbs DE, Ripple WJ. 2015. Effects of predation risk on elk (Cervus elaphus) landscape use in a wolf (Canis lupus) dominated system. Can. J. Zool.. 93:99-111. DOI | PDF
Machovina B, Feeley KJ, Ripple WJ. 2015. Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption. Science of the Total Environment. 536:419-431. DOI | PDF
McAlpine CA, Seabrook LM, Ryan JG, Feeney BJ, Ripple WJ, Ehrlich AH, Ehrlich PR. 2015. Transformational change: creating a safe operating space for humanity. Ecology and Society. 20(1) DOI | PDF
Newsome TM, Ballard GA, Crowther MS, Dellinger JA, Fleming PS, Glen AS, Greenville AC, Johnson CN, Letnic M, Moseby K.E. et al.. 2015. Resolving the value of the dingo in ecological restoration. Restoration Ecology. 23(3):201-208. DOI | PDF
Newsome TM, Bruskotter JT, Ripple WJ. 2015. When shooting a coyote kills a wolf: Mistaken identity or misguided management? Biodivers Conserv. 24(12) DOI | PDF
Newsome TM, Ripple WJ. 2015. Carnivore coexistence: Trophic cascades. Science. 347:383-383. PDF
Painter LE, Beschta RL, Larsen EJ, Ripple WJ. 2015. Recovering aspen follow changing elk dynamics in Yellowstone: evidence of a trophic cascade? Ecology. 96(1):252-263. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Beschta RL, Fortin JK, Robbins CT. 2015. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears. Journal of Animal Ecology. 84:652-654. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Beschta RL, Painter LE. 2015. Trophic cascades from wolves to alders in Yellowstone. Forest Ecology and Management. 354:254-260. DOI | PDF
Ripple WJ, Newsome TM, Wolf C, Dirzo R, Everatt KT, Galetti M, Hayward MW, Kerley GH, Levi T, Lindsey P.A. et al.. 2015. Collapse of the world's largest herbivores. Science Advances. 1(4) DOI | PDF
Valkenburgh BV, Hayward MW, Ripple WJ, Meloro C, Roth VL. 2015. The impact of large terrestrial carnivores on Pleistocene ecosystems. PNAS. 113(4):862-867. DOI | PDF
Wallach AD, Izhaki I, Toms JD, Ripple WJ, Shanas U. 2015. What is an apex predator? Oikos. 124(11):1453-1461. DOI | PDF
Wallach AD, Ripple WJ, Carroll SP. 2015. Novel trophic cascades: apex predators enable coexistence. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 30:146-153. DOI | PDF


Beschta RL, Ripple WJ. 2014. Divergent patterns of riparian cottonwood recovery after the return of wolves in Yellowstone, USA. Ecohydrology 8(1):58-66. DOI | PDF